Exhibit 22: Treaty between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia, on the one part, and Belgium, on the other (1)

(C. P. Sanger, and H. T. J. Norton, England’s Guarantee to Belgium and Luxemburg, with the Full Text of the Treaties (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1915)

Signed at London, April 19, 1839.

In the Name of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, His Majesty the King of the French, His Majesty the King of Prussia, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russians, taking into consideration, as well as His Majesty the King of the Belgians, their Treaty concluded at London on the 15th of November, 1831, as well as the Treaties signed this day between their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the King of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russians, on the one part, and His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, on the other part, and between His Majesty the King of the Belgians and His said Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, their said Majesties have named as their Plenipotentiaries, that is to say:
[Here follow the names.]

Article I.
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, His Majesty the King of the French, His Majesty the King of Prussia, and His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russians, declare, that the Articles hereunto annexed, and forming the tenour of the Treaty concluded this day between His Majesty the King of the Belgians and His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, are considered as having the same force and validity as if they were textually inserted in the present Act, and that they are thus placed under the guarantee of their said Majesties.

Article II.
The Treaty of the 15th of November, 1831, between their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the King of the French, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russians, and His Majesty the King of the Belgians, is declared not to be obligatory upon the High Contracting Parties.

Article III.
The present Treaty shall be ratified, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at London at the expiration of six weeks, or sooner if possible. This exchange shall take place at the same time as that of the ratifications of the Treaty between Belgium and Holland. In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty, and have affixed thereto the seal of their Arms.
Done at London, the nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine.

(L.S.) Palmerston.
(L.S.) Senfft.
(L.S.) H. Sebastiani.
(L.S.) Bulow.
(L.S.) Pozzo di Borgo.
(L.S.) Sylvan van de Weyer.

Annex to the Treaty of London signed at London, on the 19th April 1839, between Great Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, and Russia, on the one part, and the Netherlands, on the other part.

Article I.
The Belgian territory shall be composed of the provinces of
South Brabant;
Liege;
Namur;
Hainault;
West Flanders;
Antwerp; and
Limbourg,
such as they formed part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands constituted in 1815, with the exception of those districts of the province of Limbourg which are designated in Article IV.
The Belgian territory shall, moreover, comprise that part of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg which is specified in Article II.

Article II.
In the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, the limits of the Belgian territory shall be such as will be hereinafter described, viz.
Commencing from the frontier of France between Rodange which shall remain to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and Athus, which shall belong to Belgium, there shall be drawn, according to the annexed map, a line which, leaving to Belgium the road from Arlon to Longwy, the town of Arlon with its district, and the road from Arlon to Bastogne, shall pass between Messancy, which shall be on the Belgian territory, and Clemancy, which shall remain to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, terminating at Steinfort, which place shall also remain to the Grand Duchy. From Steinfort this line shall be continued in the direction of Eischen, Hecbus, Guirsch, Ober-Pallen, Grende, Nothomb, Parette, and Perle, as far as Martelange; Hecbus, Guirsch, Grende, Nothomb, and Parette, being to belong to Belgium, and Eischen, Ober-Pallen, Perle, and Martelange, to the Grand Duchy. From Martelange the said line shall follow the course of the Sure, the water way (thalweg) of which river shall serve as the limit between the two States, as far as opposite to Tintange, from whence it shall be continued, as directly as possible, towards the present frontier of the Arrondissement of Diekirch, and shall pass between Surret, Harlange, and Tarchamps, which places shall be left to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and Honville, Livarchamps, and Loutremange, which places shall form part of the Belgian territory. Then having, in the vicinity of Doncols and Soulez, which shall remain to the Grand Duchy, reached the present boundary of the Arrondissement of Diekirch, the line in question shall follow the said boundary to the frontier of the Prussian territory. All the territories, towns, fortresses, and places situated to the west of this line, shall belong to Belgium; and all the territories, towns, fortresses, and places situated to the east of the said line, shall continue to belong to the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
It is understood, that in making out this line, and in conforming as closely as possible to the description of it given above, as well as to the delineation of it on the map, which, for the sake of greater clearness, is annexed to the present Article, the Commissioners of demarcation, mentioned in Article V, shall pay due attention to the localities, as well as to the mutual necessity for accommodation which may result there from.

Article III.
In return for the cessions made in the preceding Article, there shall be assigned to His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, a territorial indemnity in the province of Limbourg.

Article IV.
In execution of that part of Article I which relates to the province of Limbourg and in consequence of the cessions which His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, makes in Article II, His said Majesty shall possess, either to be held by him in his character of Grand Duke of Luxembourg, or for the purpose of being united to Holland, those territories, the limits of which are hereinafter described.
1. On the right bank of the Meuse; to the old Dutch enclaves upon the said bank in the province of Limbourg shall be united those districts of the said province upon the same bank, which did not belong to the States General in 1790; in such wise that the whole of that part of the present province of Limbourg situated upon the right bank of the Meuse, and comprised between that river on the west, the frontier of the Prussian territory on the east, the present frontier of the province of Liege on the south, and Dutch Guelderland on the north, shall henceforth belong to His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, either to be held by him in his character of Grand Duke of Luxembourg, or in order to be united to Holland.
2. On the left bank of the Meuse; commencing from the southernmost point of the Dutch province of North Brabant, there shall be drawn, according to the annexed map, a line which shall terminate on the Meuse above Wessem between that place and Stevenswaardt at the point where the frontiers of the present Arrondissements of Ruremonde and Maestricht meet on the left bank of the Meuse; in such manner that Bergerot, Stamproy, Neer-Itteren, Ittervoordt, and Thorn, with their districts, as well as all the other places situated to the north of this line, shall form part of the Dutch territory.
The old Dutch enclaves in the province of Limbourg upon the left bank of the Meuse, shall belong to Belgium, with the exception of the town of Maestricht which, together with a radius of territory, extending twelve hundred tosses from the outer glacis of the fortress, on the said bank of this river, shall continue to be possessed in full sovereignty and property by His Majesty the King of the Netherlands.

Article V.
His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, shall come to an agreement with the Germanic Confederation, and with the Agnates of the House of Nassau, as to the application of the stipulations contained in Articles III and IV, as well as upon all the arrangements which the said Articles may render necessary, either with the abovementioned Agnates of the House of Nassau, or with the Germanic Confederation.

Article VI.
In consideration of the territorial arrangements above stated, each of the two parties renounces reciprocally, and forever, all pretension to the territories, towns, fortresses, and places situated within the limits of the possessions of the other party, such as those limits are described in Articles I, II, and IV.
The said limits shall be marked out in conformity with those Articles by Belgian and Dutch Commissioners of demarcation, who shall meet as soon as possible in the town of Maestricht.

Article VII.
Belgium, within the limits specified in Articles I, II, and IV, shall form an independent and perpetually neutral State. It shall be bound to observe such neutrality towards all other States.

Article VIII.
The drainage of the waters of the two Flanders shall be regulated between Holland and Belgium, according to the stipulations on this subject contained in Article VI of the definitive Treaty concluded between His Majesty the Emperor of Germany and the States General, on the 8th of November 1785; and in conformity with the said Article, Commissioners, to be named on either side, shall make arrangements for the application of the provisions contained in it.

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